The projects seen in the photographs are connected with migration, in the sense that some returned migrants work in them, and Moroccan migrants who have or are still working in France, the Netherlands or Spain invest in them. However, it is important to realise that such projects are made possible by investment-friendly measures (such as irrigation, power and transport infrastructure) initiated by individuals, communities and the Moroccan government, as well as by returning migrants. The extent to which such projects are the result of the migrant contribution is often hard to establish.
All pictures by Stephen Castles, copyright 2010. Please contact: Stephen.email@example.com for permission to reproduce them.